Cognitive, Affective, and Desire Factors in Predicting Domestic Tourism Intention: The Model Application of Goal-Directed Behavior


  • Ericko Grady Universitas Pelita Harapan
  • Sabrina Sihombing Universitas Pelita Harapan



goal-directed behavior, intention, travel, purposive sampling, SEM


Tourism is one of the sectors that has been directly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The decline in the number of domestic and foreign tourists has an impact on the country's economy. Therefore, this study aims to test the theory of Goal Directed Behavior in predicting the intention to visit local tourists during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study uses a quantitative approach and uses a purposive sampling strategy to obtain data through the distribution of online surveys. There were 209 respondents who met domestic travel requirements in the past year. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used as an analytical tool in testing research hypotheses. The results of the analysis showed that the relationship between attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, positive anticipated emotions, negative anticipated emotions, was mediated by desire towards intention.


Ajzen, I., & Madden, T.J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22(5), 453–474.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683.

Ajzen, I. (2020). The theory of planned behavior: Frequently asked questions. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2(4), 314-324.

Aydin, B., Erdogan, B.Z., & Baloglu, S. (2020). Examining the role of country image in the relationship between cuisine image and intention to visit a country. International Journal of Tourism Research, 23(4), 555-568.

Bagozzi, R.P., & Dholakia, U.M. (2006). Antecedents and purchase consequences of customer participation in small group brand communities. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(1), 45–61.

Bilgihan, A., Barreda, A., Okumus, F., & Nusair, K. (2016). Consumer perception of knowledge-sharing in travel-related Online Social Networks. Tourism Management, 52 (10), 287–296.

BPS (2021), “Jumlah Perjalanan Wisatawan Nusantara (Orang), 2016-2018”, tersedia di wisatawan-nusantara.html, (diakses pada 12 Oktober 2021). BPS (2021), “Jumlah Devisa Sektor Pariwisata (Miliar US $), 2016-2018”, tersedia di pariwisata.html, (diakses pada 12 Oktober 2021).

BPS (2021), “Agustus 2020: Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka (TPT) sebesar 7,07persen”,tersediadi /agustus-2020--tingkat-pengangguran-terbuka--tpt--sebesar-7-07-persen.html, (diakses pada 12 Oktober 2021).

BPS (2021), “Februari 2021: Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka (TPT) sebesar 6,26 persen”, tersedia di 2021- tingkat-pengangguran-terbuka--tpt--sebesar-6-26-persen.html, (diakses pada 12 Oktober 2021).

Buck, R., Khan, M., Fagan, M., & Coman, E. (2018). The User Affective Experience Scale: A Measure of Emotions Anticipated in Response to Pop-Up Computer Warnings. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 34(1), 25-34.

Bui, N.A., & Kiatkawsin, K. (2020). Examining Vietnamese Hard-Adventure Tourists’ Visit Intention Using an Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behavior. Sustainability, 12(5), 1-18.

Cao, J., Zhang, J., Wang, C., Hu, H., & Yu, P. (2019). How Far Is the Ideal Destination? Distance Desire, Ways to Explore the Antinomy of Distance Effects in Tourist Destination Choice. Journal of Travel Research, 59(4), 614-630.

Chiu, W., & Cho, H. (2021). The Model of Goal-Directed Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality: A Meta-analytic Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Journal of Travel Research, 1(1), 1-19.

Chiu, W., Kim, T., & Won, D. (2017). Predicting consumers’ intention to purchase sporting goods online an application of the model of goal-directed behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 30(2), 333-351.

Chiu, W., Won, D., & Kim, S. (2019). Extended Model of Sport Spectator Goal- Directed Behavior: The Role of Event Prestige in Nonmajor Sport Events. Event Management, 23(1), 119–133.

Choi, Y.J., & Park, J.W. (2020). Investigating Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention of Online Duty-Free Shop Users. Sustainability, 12(17), 1-20.

Choo, H.K., Choo, Y.C., & Kang, H.M. (2016). Do sport tourists’ perceived risks affect their involvement and intention to (re)visit? An empirical study for risk-reduction strategies. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 17(1), 19-36.

De Vos, J., Singleton, P.A., & Gärling, T. (2021). From attitude to satisfaction: introducing the travel mode choice cycle. Transport Reviews, 1–18.

Eastman, J.K., Iyer, R., & Dekhili, S. (2021). Can luxury attitudes impact sustainability? The role of desire for unique products, culture, and brand self‐congruence. Psychology & Marketing, 38(11), 1881-1894.

Eijigu, T.D. (2021). Mobile phone use intention while driving among public service vehicle drivers: Magnitude and its social and cognitive determinants. PLoSONE, 16(4), 1-17.

Escadas, M., Jalali, M.S., & Farhangmehr, M. (2018). Why bad feelings predict good behaviours: The role of positive and negative anticipated emotions on consumer ethical decision making. Business Ethics: A European Review, 28(4), 529-545.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach (1st ed.). New York Psychology Press. DOI: 10.4324/9780203838020

Fry, M.-L., Drennan, J., Previte, J., White, A., & Tjondronegoro, D. (2014). The role of desire in understanding intentions to drink responsibly: an application of the Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour. Journal of Marketing Management, 30(5-6), 551–570.

Gabbiadini, A., Cristini, F., Scacchi, L., & Monaci, M.G. (2017). Testing the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior for Predicting Binge Drinking Among Young People. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(4), 493-506.

Ghozali, I. (2017). The stuctural equation model-concepts and applications with the Amos Program 24 (7th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Hair, J.F., Hollingsworth, C.L., Randolph, A.B., and Chong, A.Y.L (2017). An Updated and Expanded Assesment of PLS-SEM in Information System Research. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 117(3), 442-458.

Hill, R.J., Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1977). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Contemporary Sociology, 6(2), 130-132.

Holevová, B.K. (2018). The Role of Prevolitional Processes in Video Game Playing: A Test of the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior and the Extended Model of Goal Directed Behavior. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 14(4), 932-948. DOI: 10.5964/ejop.v14i4.1565

Ji, C. (2017). Using the Model of Goal Directed Behavior to Assess Mainland Chinese Tourists’ Gambling Behavior. Sport, Business & Management, 8(2), 118-133.

Jin, M.L., Choi, Y., Lee, C.K., & Ahmad, M.S. (2020). Effects of Place Attachment and Image on Revisit Intention in an Ecotourism Destination: Using an Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behavior. Sustainability, 12(18), 1-16.

Jung, S.E., Santella, M., Hermann, J., & Lawrence, J. (2018). Understanding college students’ intention to consume fruits and vegetables: an application of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 56(4-5), 1-15.

KADIN (2021), “Sektor Pariwisata Rugi 10 Triliun Akibat Pandemi Covid-19”, tersedia di, (diakses pada 12 Oktober 2021).

Khuram, W., Wang, Y., Khan, S., & Khalid, A. (2021). Academic attitude and subjective norms effects on international doctoral students’ academic performance self-perceptions: A moderated-mediation analysis of the influences of knowledge-seeking intentions and supervisor support. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 31(2), 145-152.

Kiatkawsin, K. & Han, H. (2017). An alternative interpretation of attitude and extension of the value–attitude–behavior hierarchy: The destination attributes of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research,22(5), 481–500.

Ko, H.-C. (2020). Beyond Browsing: Motivations for Experiential Browsing and Goal-Directed Shopping Intentions on Social Commerce Websites. Journal of Internet Commerce, 19(2), 212–240.

Kossowska, M., Szumowska, E., Szwed, P., Kukuczka, A.C., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2020). Helping when the desire is low: Expectancy as a booster. Motivation and Emotion, 44(6), 819-831. DOI:10.1007/s11031-020- 09853-3

Kotler & Keller. (2012). Marketing Managemen (14th ed.). Global edition: Pearson Education.

Lee, S., Bruwer, J., & Song, H. (2017). Experiential and involvement effects on the Korean wine tourist’s decision-making process. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(12), 1215- 1231.

Lee. S., Song, H., Lee, C.K., & Petrick, J.F. (2017). An Integrated Model of Pop Culture Fans’ Travel Decision-Making Processes. Journal of Travel Research, 57(5), 687-701.

Lee, M.S., Lee, J.Y., Han, U.L., Park, J.H., Park, C., & Lee, C.H. (2019). A Study on the Influence of Safety Perception on the Visit Intention of Haeundae Beach Tourists Focused on the Extended Goal-Directed Behavioral Model. Journal of Coastal Research, 91(1), 211-215.

Levitt, J.A., Meng, F., Zhang, P., & DiPietro, R.B. (2017). Examining factors influencing food tourist intentions to consume local cuisine. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(3), 337-350. DOI:10.1177/1467358417742687

Machado, D.F.C., Santos, P.C.D.C., & Medeiros, M.D.L. (2021). Effects of Social Comparison, Travel Envy and Self-presentation on the Intention to Visit Tourist Destinations. Brazilian Business Review, 18(3), 297-316.

Meng, B. & Choi, K. (2016). The role of authenticity in forming slow tourists’ intentions: Developing an extended model of goal-directed behavior. Tourism Management, s57, 397–410.

Moshi, F.V., Kibusi, S.M., & Fabian, F. (2020). Exploring Factors Influencing Pregnant Women’s Attitudes, Perceived Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavior Control Towards Male Involvement in Maternal Services Utilization: A Baseline-Findings from A Community Based Interventional Study from Rukwa, Rural Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 20(1), 634-641.

Octavius, G.S., & Antonio, F. (2021). Antecedents of Intention to Adopt Mobile Health (mHealth) Application and Its Impact on Intention to Recommend: An Evidence from Indonesian Customers. International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications, 20(21), 1-24.

Perugini, M. and Bagozzi, R.P. (2004). The distinction between desires and intentions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34(1), 69-84.

Song, H., Wang, J., & Han, H. (2019). Effect of image, satisfaction, trust, love, and respect on loyalty formation for name-brand coffee shops. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 79(1), 50–59.

Song, H., Lee, C.-K., Reisinger, Y., & Xu, H.-L. (2016). The role of visa exemption in Chinese tourists’ decision-making: a model of goal-directed behavior. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(5), 666–679.

Siang, J.H., Yang, W.G., & Liu, L.W. (2020). Impact of WOM and Online WOM on Tourist Destinations in Indonesia. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana, 25(10), 297-304. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4155629

Whittaker, C. (2021). Safari & Kilimanjaro: Travelling in Tanzania during the Pandemic.46(1), 55-57.

WHO (2021), “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)”, tersedia di topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1, (diakses pada 12 Oktober 2021).

Xu, W., Youn, H.J., & Lee, C.K. (2021). Role of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for COVID-19 in Cruise Tourists’ Decision-Making Process: An Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behavior. Sustainability, 13(10), 5552-5567.

Yang, T., Wang, Y., Deng, J., & Huang, C. (2021). Attitude, Social Norms, and Perceived Behavioral Control Influence the Academic Integrity-Related Behavioral Intentions of Graduate Students. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 49(4), 1-12.

Yim, B.H., & Byon, K.K. (2019). Critical factors in the sport consumption decision making process of millennial fans: a revised model of goal-directed behavior. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 21(3), 427-447. DOI:10.1108/IJSMS-03-2019-0031

Zhao, K., Shi, H., Zhang, Y.Y., & Sheng, J. (2021). Fresh Produce E-Commerce and Online Shoppers’ Purchase Intention. The Chinese Economy, 54(6), 1-16. Zhuang, X., Hou, X., Feng, Z., Lin, Z., & Li, J. (Justin). (2020). Subjective norms, attitudes, and intentions of AR technology use in tourism experience: the moderating effect of millennials. Leisure Studies, 40(3), 1–15.